Marshal McLuhan

{C}· the medium is the message

{C}· Founder of media studies as a disciplinary space

{C}· He is an Orwellian

{C}· Media is going to lead us to big brother

{C}· Facist dictator leading us through the message

{C}· 1st real mediary scholar

{C}· Need to be paying attention to media

{C}· Media is potentially controlling our thought processes



{C}· been around since 1960s (what would happen with computer technology) – coined to connote intersection of culture and technology'

Neil Postman

{C}· Amusing ourselves to death

{C}· The message doesn’t have to control us

{C}· We want to dope ourselves

{C}· We willingly surrender to it

{C}· Something is there, theyn it’s not-just getting a snapshot of the whole story, only a piece of the puzzle

{C}· Everyday technology has an inherent bias-the Broadway lights are beautiful if you can’t read

{C}· No problem with entertainment, problem with when we try to live it

{C}· Medium constrains the message in terms of scope, privileges visual over textual

{C}· We are entertaining ourselves to never figure out what is wrong with it, we don’t care about truth because we are entertained by media

{C}· The medium is the soma (pleasure drug from Brave New World) that keeps us from understanding what the message is doing

{C}o We watch big brother by choice, he doesn’t watch us by choice

John December “The World Wide Web Unleashed”

{C}· Development of the Internet

{C}· Internet is a communication tool

{C}· Information superhighway

{C}· Web has become the way to organize the panoply of information

{C}· Origins

{C}o Tim Berner-Lee, a researcher at CERN, proposed a system to enable efficient information sharing for members of the high-energy physics community

{C}o Access variety of document types and information protocols

{C}o Stored in form of documents w/ references, called “’links,” to other document

{C}· Ted Nelson coined term hypertext to characterize text that is not constrainted to be sequential

{C}o His dream was Xanadu, a system to link all world literature with probisions for automatically paying royalties of linking info in nonhierarchical ways

{C}o Ability to put things online

{C}· One could argue that the Web reflects something more than just a technical ability to publish info globally or store and retrieve info. The Web might be another way to express the relatedness of ideas and words, something humans have been doing for thousands of years

{C}· Nelson also coined term hypermedia which is hypertext not constrained to the text

The Web emerged from ideas about the associative, nonlinear organization of information. Its protocols and technical standards were defined at the Counseil European pur la Recherche Nucleaire in the early 1990s. Subsequent development of graphical user interfaces to the Web in the US has led to the widespread use of the Web in industry, education, govn’t, and in the general culture. Today, the Web is a hypertext information and communication system popularly used on the Internet. Communication on the Web can assume many forms and take place in many contexts, ranging from the individual communication to group and mass communication



Red Alert

{C}· Instantaneity causes trauma

{C}· Red Alert we need to think about speed

{C}· Shifting how we think about time, space, and humanity

{C}· One of the major problems now facing political as well as military strategists is the phenomenon of immediacy, of instantaneity


What is Cyberspace? (Own Words)

{C}· As a global network of interdependent information technology infrastructures, telecommunications networks and computer processing systems, “cyberspace”, which has become somewhat synonymous with - but not limited to - anything associated with the Internet and its diverse culture, is really the flow of digital data through the network of interconnected computers and is something that we take for granted and depend on every day.

{C}· Imagined space in which users virtually interact in work, social engagement etc.

Schism between reality of cyberspace and fictional utopian representational


What is Cyberculture? (Own Words)

{C}· Culture – set of morals and values, shared practices and understandings, social constructs and infrastructure, culture is passed down from generation to generation, creates themes

{C}· Cyberculture – imagined space where a virtual reality takes place

{C}· The culture (set of morals and values, shared practices and understanding, social constructs and infrastructure) as a result of user interaction, communication, etc. in cyberspace

Benedikt’s Cyberspace: First Steps

{C}· One of 1st major scholars to theorize what is cyberspace

{C}· If it is a space what does it do

{C}· Based on his analysis, cyberspace doesn’t replace world 3, just displaces the items, ideas, and practices from world 3


{C}· World 1 – Objective World

{C}o Natural things and their physical properties – with their energy and weight and motion and rest

{C}· World 2 – Subjective World

{C}o intentions, calculations, feelings, thoughts, dreams, memories, and so on

{C}· World 3 – World of Objective

{C}o real and public structures which are not-necessarily- intentional products of the minds of living creatures, interacting with each other and with the natural world

{C}· 4 Threads of World 3

{C}· Thread 1 – Mythologies and fictions we create

{C}· Archetypes

{C}· Mythologies

{C}· Telos – we are arriving at something

{C}· Thread 2 – Changing technology, trends, always becoming obsolete

{C}· Evolving

{C}· Technology is always changing

{C}· Things are always becoming obsolete

{C}· Thread 3 – Architecture of the Heavenly City, strive to bring about this “heavenly city”

{C}· Architecture

{C}· Arrive at or bring about heavenly architecture

{C}· Shifts and creates a new sense of

{C}· Thread 4 – Math, cyberspace creates a new space of logic and rules, new mapping

{C}· Creates a new sense of logic

{C}· Language

{C}· Thwarting logical mapping and creating new

Does cyberspace allow us to create heavenly city

Does cyberspace allow for this utopia, more ideal life

{C}· Theorizes what cyberspace does to human created ideas, relationships (world 3 items)

{C}· Man made created by humans, social artifacts, culture, non naturally occurring items

{C}· Displacement not a replacement

{C}· Ex. Language we created in world 3 allows it to grow and etc. in cyberspace

{C}· Ex. Took some standards from printing press, typewriters etc. but once they are put in cyberspace there is whole set of new things


{C}· We are constantly on the move in cyberspace like nomads

{C}· Get lost in new technology, but eventually settle down into niche and become more comfortable

{C}· Explore new frontiers but always go back and communicate thoughts

{C}· Explore depths of internet, someone else has already been there (for the most part) rarely is one person the very first to a site


{C}· Book is a convergence of 3 concepts-media convergence, participatory culture, and collective intelligence



Convergence – flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences who will go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they want.

{C}· Convergence is a word that manages to describe technological, industrial, cultural, and social changes depending on who’s speaking and what they think they are talking about

{C}· In the world of media convergence, every important story gets told, every brand gets sold, and every consumer gets courted across multiple media platforms

{C}· Pool’s Technologies of Freedom (1983)

{C}o A process called the “convergence of modes

{C}· a service that was provided in the past by any one medium-be it broadcasting, the press, or telephony-can now be provided in several different physical ways. So the one-to-one relationship that used to exist between a medium and its use is eroding

{C}· Freedom is fostered when the means of communication are dispersed, decentralized, and easily available, as are printing presses or microcomputers.

{C}· The coming together of media and technology to disseminate information

{C}· A situation in which multiple media systems coexist and where media content flows fluidly across them. An ongoing process or series of intersections between different media systems

{C}· In essence, everything converges (comes together) in cyberspace, so it I the coming together of different forms of media and different content

Convergence Culture

{C}· A shift in the logic by which culture operates, emphasizing the flow of content across media channels


{C}· Taking data from crowd to create an algorithm to predict what people are searching online

{C}· Ex. google

{C}· Act of sourcing tasks traditionally performed by specific individuals to a group of people or community (crowd) through an open call

{C}· 10 Red Weather Balloons

{C}· 10 red weather balloons that were secretly placed in diverse locations throughout the U.S. for just 24-hours.

{C}· took the winning team from MIT a mere 8 hours and 52 minutes to find all 10 balloons, in 10 different states, at a cost of $40,000.

{C}· The method used by both DARPA and MIT to solve this challenge is known as crowdsourcing.

{C}· Crowdsourcing is a term coined for a new form of labor in which tasks that would have traditionally been allocated to an employee are instead allocated to an ad hoc formed, undefined group, or crowd.

{C}· To the surprise of many, this DARPA challenge proved that crowdsourcing is the most effective finding tool on the planet, bar none.

Collective Intelligence

{C}· Pierre Levy’s term to refer to the ability of virtual communities to leverage the knowledge and expertise of their members, often through large scale collaboration

{C}· Knowledge community

{C}· A group of people pooling their knowledge together

{C}· Collectively know more, greater than individual components

{C}· Collaborating for a common good

{C}· Allows us to access, contribute, modify

{C}· Survivor

{C}· Wikipedia

{C}· Levy said collective knowledge will lead to democracy: a radical new form of democracy will come to fruition

Black Box Fallacy

{C}· Black Box Fallacy – all media content is going to flow through a single black box into our living rooms (or, in the mobile scenario, through black boxes we carry around with us everywhere we go) (Jenkins 14).

Chapter 1 Spoiling Survivor

{C}· In the case of Survivor, a group of consumers - hard-core fans, a contingent known as the “spoilers”- pooled their knowledge to try to unearth the series’ many secrets before they are revealed on the air. This shows both the social nature of contemporary media consumption and gives insight into how knowledge becomes power in the age of media convergence.

{C}· GPS, television, news, online


Chapter 2 Buying into American Idol

{C}· Vertical Integration

{C}· In the case of American Idol, reality television is being shaped by what Jenkins calls “affective economics,” which encourages companies to transform brands into what one industry insider calls “lovemarks” and to blur the line between entertainment content and brand messages.

Vertical Integration

{C}· Using advertising to integrate at all different levels of media

Affective Economics

{C}· Condition product loyalty 80-20 rule 80% of purchases come from 20% of customers

The Matrix (Transmedia Storytelling)

{C}· Chapter 3 Searching for the Origami Unicorn examines The Matrix franchise as an example of what I am calling transmedia storytelling. Transmedia storytelling refers to a new aesthetic that has emerged in response to media convergence-one that places new demands on consumers and depends on the active participation of knowledge communities. Transmedia storytelling is the art of world making. To fully experience any fictional world, consumers must assume the role of hunters and gatherers, chasing down bits of the story across media channels, comparing notes with each other via online discussion groups, and collaborating to ensure that everyone who invests time and effort will come away with a richer entertainment experience.

{C}· See Blog

Quentin Tarantino’s Star Wars?

Chapters 4 and 5 take us deeper into the realm of participatory culture. Chapter 4 deals with Star Wars fan filmmakers and gamers, who are actively reshaping George Lucas’s mythology to satisfy their own fantasies and desires. Fan cultures will be understood here as a revitalization of the old folk culture prodcess in resonse to the content of mass culture


Tron – Example of Transmedia Storytelling

Gurak 1 & 2

{C}· Cyberliteracy – being a responsible active participant; performance based thing only

{C}· By “literacy” I mean…not only the ability to read and write but an activity of the minds… capable of recognizing and engaging substantive issues along with the ways that minds, sensibilities, and emotions are constructed by and within communities whose members communicate through specific technologies. In other words, literacy has to do with consciousness': how we know what we know and recognition of the historical, ideological and technological forces that inevitably operate in all human beings

{C}· Cyberliteracy is an electronic literacy – newly emerging in a new medium – that combines features of both print and spoken word, and it does so in ways that change how we read, speak, think, and interact with others

{C}· To be cyberliterate means that we need to understand the relationship between our communication technologies and ourselves , our communities, and our cultures.

{C}· Literacy “constitutes inter-subjective activity in encoding and decoding screen and alphabetic texts within specific cultural practices and recognizes the inevitable deployment of power and the control that larger entities have over these media

{C}· Cyberliteracy means voicing an opinion about what these technologies should become and being an active, not passive, participant

{C}· Involves acquiring necessary survival skills, the core competencies to take advantage of this environment

{C}· I address issues like flaming, emotion, and identity, to encourage each of us to become better at critiquing, challenging, and anticipating how these technologies are designed, implemented, and used

{C}· Cyberliteracy (again noting Welch) is about consciousness. It is about taking a critical perspective on a technology that is radically transforming the world.

{C}o Understanding that cyberliteracy is not a neutral value

{C}o An electronic literacy

{C}o Understanding technology’s increased “reach”

{C}o Computer literac (but not just)

{C}o Consciousness

{C}o Going beyond being a “user” and becoming an “active participant”

{C}o The availability to communicate (performative)

{C}· 4 Components

{C}· Speed: casualness, oralness, redundancy, repetitiveness; reach: multiplicity, globalness, lack of gatekeeping, visual reach, community; interactivity: privacy, ecommerce and connections to consumers, access to inner circle, ability to talk back, two-way presence; anonymity: identity, gender & sex, authorship, flaming

{C}· compression of time and space



{C}· Compressed information

McCalister’s Studying the Computer Game Complex

{C}· Whether gaming causes these violent reactions or not (Is there a correlation between gaming and violence?)

{C}· Guy in shooting played videogames

{C}· Should they be the scapegoat (all bad), or are video games good

{C}· Truth is in the dialectic of the two

{C}· Need to be studying computer games – have as much cultural force as a piece of literature, a film

{C}o Psychological force

{C}o Economic Gorce

{C}o Instructional, pedagogical force (game inherently teaches us something)

{C}· Such a large segment of the population is engaging in videogames, whe should know what it is doing to societ

{C}· Video games are better than tv because they are more interactive

{C}· Push-and-pull

{C}· TV – push – sends out a message whether you want it or not

7 elements for analysis: layers of the computer game (Konzak)

{C}· Hardware

{C}· Program Code

{C}· Functionality: capability of program

{C}· Gameplay: interaction of player and game associated with manipulation

{C}· Meaning: narrative

{C}· Referentiality: comparison to real world

{C}· Socio-culture

{C}· Can’t analyze all of these elements at one time, pick 2-4 elements to focus on

Aesthetic Analysis

{C}· Gameplay

{C}· Game world – artistic representation

{C}· Game rules – how are they presented to the user

To Seriously Analyze

{C}· Must play, watch someone play, research/compare with other data, and talk with developers = get a multi-person perspective


4 types of gamers

{C}· Can’t keep same methodologies to study games

{C}· Must play, watch someone play, research/compare with other data, and talk with developers = get a multi-person perspective

{C}· Killers: aggressive, enhoy preying, harassing and spoiling

{C}· Socializers: enjoy others’ company, interactivity

{C}· Achievers: play to win and finish as fast as possible

{C}· Cheaters: use codes and short cuts

{C}· Explorer


{C}· Interactive of RL and VW

{C}· Using some kind of technology to navigate through world 1 from info from world 3

{C}· Effect

{C}o Reliant on the technology

{C}o Using technology to pull ourselves back into world one

{C}o Using technology to get us back into nature

A Rape In Cyberspace

{C}· Is a rape online the same as a rape in RL

{C}o Mr. Bungle, a group of colleges students

{C}o Sociological experience

{C}o Have no idea that the people reading this causes a trauma

{C}o Where it is a rape – physical aspect of it, but also is a mental component

{C}o Different perspectives in what we are engaging in

{C}o Group think

{C}o People experience that and there were real consequences because of that interaction


{C}· MUD (Multiple User Domain), object oriented

{C}· 1st kind of orientations/interactions

Jessie Daniels Cyber Racism

{C}· Epistemology - The study of knowledge and justified belief; the creation and dissemination of knowledge in a particular area of inquiry (Richards 1/16/12). An epistomology is the facts, observations, and conclusions one uses to legitimize a certain knowledge. It also is concerned with how knowledge is created, acquired, and the limitations of that knowledge. For example, the epistemology of white supremacy deals with how and why a belief that "white" is the dominant racial identity was born from perceived affiliations and notions of a racial heirarchy.

{C}· Cyber racism, a term coined by Les Back and chosen as the title of this book, refers to a range of white supremacist movements in Europe and North America and to the new horizons the internet and digital media have opened for expression of whiteness across national boundaries

Corrodes democratic ideals of equality

{C}· Cyber-Activism: includes cyberfeminism, racism, hacktivism, terrorism. Proliferation of social movement organizations-promote inclusive, democratic society

{C}· Epistemology – study of issues having to do with creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry – in cberspace anyone can create evidence because of the reduction of gatekeepers online

{C}· Translocal Whiteness – a notion of whiteness with roots in a locality-it’s notion moves across borders of time, space, and nations

{C}· White racial frame – the notion of frames was developed by Erving Goffman. A frame refers to a set of labels that receives affix to social phenomena so as to make sense of them. The white racial frame includes

{C}o A white racial framing of society with its racist ideology, stereotypes, and emotions

{C}o White’s discriminatory actions and racial hierarchy

{C}o Racist institutionsmaintained by discriminatory whites over centuries

{C}o The rationalizing of the white racial frame befan in the 1600s as a justifications for the economic and racial hierarchy of colonialism-this continues today

{C}· Issue isn’t recruitment but the circulation of an epistemology of white supremacy and translocal whiteness

{C}· They can use deception

{C}· Authorship and credibility

{C}· In past was more gatekeeping kind of structures

{C}· Proliferation of speakers

{C}· As people go online oppressive knowledge’s go unchecked, circulate in a more virulent way

{C}· Translocal whiteness – don’t even have to be in US to affiliate with beliefs

{C}· Not an issue of recruitment, knowledges become re-engrained into cultural fabric

{C}· No gatekeepers, no checks and balances with ethos

{C}· Mr. Luther

Hactivist Reading

{C}· Hactivism – political, social purpose behind it

{C}· Not vandalism and defacement

{C}· Works with people who have a deep knowledge of technology and how it works


{C}· Anonymous


{C}· Calling into question how gender hierarchy is maintained

{C}· Looking at how gender ideals and norms are recreated and displaced in cyberspace


{C}· We are already cyborgs

{C}· Technology structures our understanding of exucation, popitics, structure, etc.

{C}· Feminist part: part biology and part machine

{C}· If we don’t recognize this and keep using them without thinking we will continue to be dominated by oppressive regimes

{C}· We want to understand what those technologies are and how we can protect our humanness

The photoshop of Adobe

{C}· The women are still a certain ideal

{C}· Reproducing what it means to be “women”


{C}· When we are being ironic and blasphemous that does not make us innocent. Prob going to have some outcome that is less than ideal

{C}· Might end up reproducing things we don’t mean to

There are many forms of democracy, however, democracy, in its purest or most ideal form would be a society in which all adult citizens have an equal say in decisions that affect their lives. A democracy, as Dewey explains in The Public and its Problems (1927), is a public that can recognize and govern itself. Abraham Lincoln said that a democracy is a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Dewey states, “the prime difficulty” is “discovering the means by which a scattered, mobile, and manifold public may so recognize itself as to define and express its interests. There remains a schism between the reality of cyberspace and its fictional utopian representation. The Internet certainly has potential to improve democracy with active civil participation; however the Internet has limitations to fostering democracy. I do not think that the internet is a democracy nor do I think it ever will be.

The Internet is anarchic and interactive. Because the Internet is anarchic, there is little or no control, meaning the power is in the hands of the people. The Internet is this collective space, because as a medium, the Internet is a great communication tool which is interactive. In this way, the Internet expands the role of people from passive message consumers to active message creators. As such people can perform their civic responsibility to participate.

The internet improves democracy by offering both internal and external ways for citizens to participate in political decision making process. Internally, the Internet provides resources, raising civil awareness of political decision making and critical issues. Externally, the Internet provides a channel for citizens to make their voices heard. The Internet improves civil participation by prompting active dissemination of information and is also a communication tool which fosters informed citizens and erodes monopolies of knowledge, ending civil ignorance of moral, political, and economic issues. On the Internet, people can act as gatekeepers taking the time to negotiate consensus and act as checks and balances so that the maintenance of a community does not fall on the same group of people’s backs and shoulders, thus stifling monopolization of power.

However, the Internet is a Distopia. Utopian visions are too idealistic about the Internet’s potential to improve democracy. On the Internet there are many limitations to fostering democracy. There I a digital divide. The digital divide is a major unequalizing force in the world economy today as many people do not have Internet access. There is a civil indifference and reluctance to participate in the decision making process

Nannerl O. Keohane, in her book Thinking about Leadership says, "even the simplest, most robust participatory democracies must come to terms with the fact that, in Semour Martin Lipset's words, 'democracy in the sense of a system of decision-making in which all members or citizens play an active role in the continuous process is inherenly impossible'" (Keohane 164). Sure billions of people spread out over the globe, simultaneously plugged into the Internet could vote on a proposition, but in no practical way could they simultaneously deliberate or suggest alternatives to whatever is before them (Keohane 164). On our online class I could not even keep up with twenty some odd inputs simultaneously. "With ingenious deployment of technology there will no doubt be refinements that will allow large-scale participation to be more effectively accomplished. However the continuous participation of all citizens is 'inherently impossible' for reasons that have nothing to do with the scale or technology. Instead these reasons involve the division of labor and the demands of political activity" (Keohane 164-165).

In a democracy, each person’s vote should count the same in determining the final outcome.

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