"Cyber Racism " written 2009
Professor of Urban Public Health at Hunter College
Renowned for research on print-based white supremac
Cyber Racism - a range of white supremacy movements in Europe and North America and to the new horizons of the Internet and digital media that promotes the expression of whiteness (intentionally or unintentionally) across borders.
Cyber Activism - "The proliforation of social movement organizations that avail themselves of Internet technologies to further their goals, which often include promoting a more inclusive, democratic society" (note: this definition may be slightly biased). Daniels says you have to look beyond "official" social movements to reach a full definition of cyber activism. She looks at white supremacy as an epistemology and a sociological frame.
Epistemology - Epistemology is the study of "issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry." Basically, it recognizes how knowledge turns into a "justified, true belief." Epistemology requires evidence, however, in cyberspace, any one can create evidence.
White Supremacy - An epistemology of white supremacy is a belief in racial hierarchy where white is the dominant racial identity, based on biological, national, social, and ideological affiliation. However, white supremacy should not be confused with:
Whiteness - an unmarked racial identity ; a priviledged racialized class in the US (defined by historical, economical, and ideological motivations) ; maintains capitalism ; operating from somewhere on a spectrum of consciousness that does not percieve one's own socially-constructed racialized identity and/or priviledge. (Whiteness studies are not a study of how "white is good or bad," but simply notes the power cycle in practiced racialization.)
Translocal Whiteness - a notion of whiteness with roots in locality (ie. the US). However, this "notion" moves across borders of time, space and nation.
White Racial Frame - a framing of oneself to the dominant racial category
Globalization - a material and cultural practice that moves money, people, ideas, media and goods across borders of time, space, and land.
Digital Diasporas - a diaspora is a displacement from a native home or country of origin, and the assimilation and transition into a new frame of living. Digital diaspora, in this context, is the removal of oneself from ones' native RL situations into a new community on the Internet that may have a different social and genetic make-up, and is also the assimilation and reaction to this new environment.
Actual vs. Potential Harm - a distinction between the various results of racism in cyberspace. It is the distinction between what has actually come about due to the social movement online of racism, and what the possible results of this movement can be.
Active vs. Passive Participation -How one becomes involved in cyber-racism. Active participants are likely to create websites, write slander, promote ideals, while passive participants may simply read the comments that others make.
Heteronormativity - a frame of mind in which male, heterosexual sexual relationships are the norm, and also the preferred (and sometimes only) form of sexual desire tolerated.
Cyber-Racism in ActionEdit
Recruitment is not the issue with white supremacy online, it is simply the circulation of ideas.
- In 1996, he sent a flaming e-mail to 59 Asian students at UC - Irvine, and had to send it twice to get response.
- He himself is a second generation Latino, but he assimilated to a white racial frame.
Stormfront.org and other White Supremacy sites:
- David Duke - was a US representative, actually affiliated with KKK and other white supremacy groups.
- Most white supremacy relies on heteronormatic masculinity in an effort to control sexuality, however, womens' forums on the these sites are growing in popularity and liberal opinion.
- It is estimated that there are 2500-4000 racist hate sites with origins in the United States.