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Major Review

Cyberculture-coined in the 1960’s by computer scientist, they envisioned the world, without having the technology yet. Collision of culture and technology. Term evolved with creation of the Web.

Marshall Mcluhan (1964)- Global villiage, defined media, medium is the message. He believed that media was going to lead us to Big Brother, and people giving us messages, controlling us through the message. First media scholar. Film, television, radio are relaying important messages, need to start focusing on it.

Neil Postman (Anti-Mcluhan)- Amusingo ourselves to death, message doesn’t control us, we want to seek out big brother, want to watch media and willingly surrender to it, we don’t care to find out the truth because we are entertaining ourselves.

John December- Original infrastructure of the Internet, hyperlink, hypertext, Zanadu (literary texts), CERN project, Internet is a communication tool.

Michael Benedikt Cyberspace: First steps- *Popper’s three worlds: World 1-material world, World 2-ideas, consciousness, inside our brain, World 3- acting on world 1 to create human artifacts, language, buildings, clothes.

  • Cyberspace- what does it do? Cyberspace doesn’t replace world 3, it displaces items from world 3.
  • 4 major threads:
    • Thread 1: Epic heroic narrative, gender, young adolescent males are early adopters of cybertechnologies
    • Thread 2: Thread 2~ Changing technology, making obsolete of previous technology
    • Thread 3~ Architecture of the Heavenly City, bring this architecture about.. can we create a utopia? architecture within cyberspace tor each heavenly city
    • Thread 4~ Mathematics- language/logical norms and rules
  • Most important idea from Benedikt~ Displacement NOT replacement of world 3, human ideas, cyberspace affects human ideas, relationships, man-made or created by humans, social artifacts, culture. Changes in dating and language from world 3 to cyberspace!


Paul Virilio’s Red Alert in Cyberspace *Instantaneity- causes a trauma associated with speed online

  • What the speed of cyberspace is doing to us as humanbeings: changes our perceptions of time, space, and humanity


Jenkins- Intro, Chapter 1, Chapter 2 *Convergence culture- old and new media collide, convergence of content not technology, changing interactions between producers and participants, smart phones, films, Internet, bringing concepts and ideas across multiple platforms, Survivor spoiling, American Idol, The Matrix, transmedia storytelling, vertical integration, collective intelligence, Harry Potter, Pokemon

  • Pier Levi- Collective knowledge~ group of people pooling their thoughts and ideas, collectively know more than you would as individuals, believes that collective knowledge will lead us to radical democracy, rule of the people, knowledge set has to be accessed from multiple places,


Cyberliteracy- Gurak: never actually achieve being cyberliterate. impossible to define. no guide to becoming completely cyberliterate, we all have illiterate moments*more than just knowing how to do things

  • performance based but also being conscious about actions online
  • having an awareness of what is happening
  • cyberliteracy is not a neutral value
  • understanding technology’s increased reach
  • computer literacy, but not just that
  • becoming an active participant
  • availability to communicate
  • an electronic literacy


4 major components of Cyberliteracy: compression of time and space*Speed- redundancy, repetitive, oralness, casualness

  • Reach- multiplicity, globalness, lack of gatekeeping, community
  • Interactivity- privacy, ability to talk back, access to inner circle
  • Anonymity- identity, gender &sex, flaming


Ken McAllister - Studying the computer Game Complex *debate about school shootings, whether there is a correlation between gamers and physical violence

  • he doesn’t agree wholly with either argument, but depends on the interactions between two arguments.
  • we need to study computer games
    • have as much influence as film, literature
    • psychological force of computer games, how it affects us
    • economic force- multi billion dollar industry
    • instructional/pedagogical force- game teaches us things, strategy, collaboration, educational value, what do they teach us?
    • mass vs. pop culture- such a large segment is engaging in this ritual of gaming, we need to study it
    • push/pull mediums: push sends out messages regardless of whether audience wants it, pull when audience seeks the messages


Aarseth*His criteria for analyzing games

1. play

2. watch others play

3. interact with developers, technology, game set up

  • Type of gamers

1. Killers- agressive

2. Achiever- wants to win

3. Explorer- wants to find out nooks and crannies

4. Socializer - plays to interact with others

5. Cheater- cheat codes

Geocaching and cyberculture- information from displaced world 3 and walking through world 1, reliant on technology in nature, use technology to get us back into nature, watching technology and blind to surroundings, =====A rape in Cyberspace- Julian Dibbell’s My Tiny Life=====

  • Does a rape in VL exist as rape in RL?
  • Group of college students as Mr. Bungles
  • Is rape mental/emotional or physical or both?
  • real consequences because of VL interaction.


MOO- MUD (Multiple-User domain) object oriented... Dungeons and Dragons Online *First kind of virtual interactions online


Jesse Daniels Cyber Racism *Define Epistemology- the study of knowledge, how beliefs circulate and emerge, creation of knowledge,

  • Problem of Internet and Cyber Racism- People can use deception, authorship and censorship isn’t as prevalent, lack of gatekeeping, proliferation of speakers, affects academic research online, knowledge and beliefs can circulate in more virulent way.
  • Extends the reach of translocal whiteness, can identify with notions of White Supremacy thoughts
  • The main problem is not recruitment, but rather that this epistemology will get spread and re-ingrained into our cultural values.
  • cloaked website: martinlutherking.org


Hactivism- Using computer technology to achieve a political goal. Not defacement or vandalism. Anonymous posting video about wanting to take down Facebook. *could get arrested for having the capability to hack websites


Cyberfeminism- calling into question how gender hierarchy circulates and is maintained, not neccessarily all for women, but gender ideals and beliefs. Call to historical tracing of feminism history

Haraway- Cyborg Manifesto *we are already cyborgs! nothing we can do about it

  • deal with reality, and acknowledge that technology affects the way we think of politics, education, social relationships
  • feminist part- if we don’t recognize machinery within us, we will be oppressed by militaristic regimes
  • think about how we want to use these technology
  • Big Brother could evolve
  • we want to understand technologies and use our knowledge to protect humanity
  • we won’t be innocent - Pause dance Holla Back, get attacked in RL for VL picture, negative outcome
  • ironic and blasphemous does not lead to innocence, but be careful... women in fotoshop are still ideal in appearance, and stereotypes of woman.

Examples of ironic and blasphemous*Fotoshop example- ironic and blasphemous

  • Catfish- mock the media’s affect on us
  • Arab Spring Revolts- shutting down technology helped them achieve their movement



Technology, Democracy, Utopia*Increase democratic potential in society

    • broad reach of information, access, quickly mobilize Arab Spring
    • political elections, power in general public online, play bigger role with candidates, YouTube Debate, stemming from general public or all planted,
  • Distopia
    • bad information can circulate as widely as good information
    • Bias
    • Unlevel playing field based on cyberliteracy
    • cyberbullying


Now what? *push for regulation

  • debate between how to regulate, small online sites and large sites
  • S. Korea- etiquette for Internet use will spread: has had a lot of physical manifestations from Internet addiction, eye strain, etc
  • Neuroscience of brain scans for Internet vs. reading a book. Stanford.
  • Multitasking
  • Amount of work, work-life balance, burnout
  • Connected documentary


Where is the connection between RL and VL?*interwoven realities

  • what is online is fragments of the physical world
  • high correlation between who we are online, and who we are in the physical world
  • VL is an extension of RL
  • our personalities play out online, we create what we belief we are
  • social being- what I think I am and what other people think I am
  • our virtual identities are not entirely consistent, fragments
  • Gurak’s chapter 8
  • open for interpretation

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