1/16 Cyber racism—Daniels

A. Major ideas and terms

a. Cyber Racism

i. Les Back—range of white supremacy movements in Europe and North America. Internet opened expression across national boundaries. Daniels looks at more than official social movements

b. Cyber-activism

i. Includes cyberfeminism, racism, hacktivism, and terrorism. Proliferation of social movement organizations—promote inclusive, democratic society

ii. Inherent liberal bias-democracy assumed

c. Epistemology

i. Study of issues having to do with creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry—in cyberspace anyone can create evidence because of the reduction of gatekeepers online

d. White supremacy

i. An epistemology—belief in racial hierarchy where white is the dominant racial identity—evidence from perceived biological, national, social, and/or ideological affiliation.

e. Whiteness

i. Major component of white supremacy. Belid in an unmarked racial category (people don’t see their own race) privileged racialized US class based on historical and economic motivations—huge spectrum. A consciousness and practice does not necessarily mean you are white

ii. Whiteness allows for certain epistemologies of white supremacy to go unchecked

iii. Study of how power circulates through the practice of racialization

f. Translocal whiteness

i. A notion of whiteness with roots in a locality—it’s notion moves across borders of time, space, and nations

g. White racial frame

i. The notion of frames was developed by Erving Goffman. A frame refers to a set of labels that receivers affix to social phenomena so as to make sense of them. The white racial frame includes:

1. A white racial framing of society with its racist ideology, stereotypes, and emotions

2. Whites’ discriminatory actions and racial hierarchy

3. Racist institutions maintained by discriminatory whites over centuries

ii. The rationalizing of the white racial frame began in the 1600s as a justifications for the economic and racial hierarchy of colonialism—this continues today

h. Internet/cyberspace

i. Electronic networks that connect people and information through computers and other digital devices allowing person to person communication and information retrieval.

i. Globalization

i. Internet allows for—material and cultural process—moves goods and ideas across national boundaries also crossing time and space.

• Daniels is saying that the issue isn’t recruitment but the circulation of an epistemology of white supremacy and translocal whiteness.

• Richard Machado—hate emails to Asian students

-Latino man

Assimilation of white racial frame—a framing of self as dominant racial category

Flexible boundaries of whiteness

Only person arrested for cyber hate crime (2009)

B.—David Duke

a. Relies on heteronormative masculinity

b. 2,500-4,000 hate websites originate in the US

i. So many start here because of the minimal control—free speech

c. Gender and stormfront

i. Heteronormative masculinity—normative expressions of male heterosexuality

ii. Control of women’s sexual identity

iii. Contradictions of female members

1. Abortion

2. Liberalism

3. Revenge on men