Gurak introduces the 'action terms' of communication on the Internet: speed, reach, anonymity, and interactivity. These components of cyberspace lead to the compression of space and time. Each of these categories contains several additional characteristics. Repetitiveness and redundancy are both features of speed. Redundancy refers to the receipt of mutiple messages containing the same information. Repetitiveness refers to ideas, news, memes , etc. that recirculate on the Internet as if they were new. Speed also results in a casualness and oralness of cyberspace, people often ignore formal writing ettiquete, ignore grammar, and utilize abreviations.