I. {C}Writing and Media

a. {C}The Medium is the Message—McLuhan ‘64

b. {C}Medium is not just ‘mass media’—it’s what communicates a message

i. {C}Ira Shor (’87)—Critical Teaching and Everyday Life

ii. {C}Classroom example of a chair—this medium gives us a message, it can tell us the mood and about the task at hand

c. {C}The message can distract from the truth of what the medium does

i. {C}McLuhan likens this to a burglar who gives a dog a piece of meat—message is the meat. So, we worry about the media message rather than our own lives—listening to Oz and not looking behind the curtain.

1. {C}He is old school—thought messages would make us smarter and different types make us ‘hot’ or ‘cold’.

d. {C}This isn’t new to new media

i. {C}Benedict Anderson’s imagined communities (’83)

ii. {C}Nationality is an ideology—reinforced the power structures as empire and religious structures began to break—1800s

1. {C}Print capitalism: simultaneous past and future in the present

a. {C}Technical means for re-presenting imagined community—the nation

b. {C}This linked goods, people, and institutions by writing about events that happened in the same community at the same time in the newspaper

c. {C}Print was the medium that let people miss the fact that members of the smallest nations will never know most of their fellow community members but their minds united them

e. {C}Medium controls message—Postman(Postman>McLuhan-RR)

i. {C}’84: Amusing ourselves to death

ii. {C}Age of show business, peek-a-boo culture

1. {C}Something is there, then it’s not—just getting a snapshot of the whole story, only a piece of the puzzle

2. {C}This is media

3. {C}Everyday technology has an inherent bias—the Broadway lights are beautiful if you can’t read

4. {C}No problem with entertainment, problem with when we try to live it

5. {C}Medium constrains the message in terms of scope, privileges visual over textual.

6. {C}The medium is the soma (pleasure drug from Brave New World) that keeps us from understanding what the message is doing

a. {C}We watch big brother by choice, he doesn’t watch us by choice

f. {C}Texts

i. {C}Network new, documentaries, FB news feed, Tweets, NY Times, Cosmo/Maxim, etc.

g. {C}How are we distracted from what media is doing

i. {C}What we read/write a text that relies on cyberspace

1. {C}What’s happening (known knowns)

2. {C}What’s happening that we don’t understand (known unknown)

3. {C}What is happening that we know is happening but we choose to forget (unknown known)—Postman’s main concern

4. {C}What’s happening that people might be totally unaware of (unknown unknowns)

ii. {C}How are messages made more appealing/entertaining

iii. {C}How are we doped by new media

iv. {C}What’s happening that people may be unaware of


{C}A. {C}December Article-History of Web (www unleashed)

a. {C}Gutenburg-Printing press (1440)

i. {C}Chinese 11 c.

ii. {C}Allowed print capitalism

b. {C}Samuel Morse-Telegraph (1837)

i. {C}Written language travels instantaneously

c. {C}Telsa, Marconey, Edison-Radio (1890s)

d. {C}Philo Farnsworth-TV (1925)

i. {C}In homes in ‘26-‘50s

1946—1st computer----------------------------------

e. {C}Computers (’57)

i. {C}Sputnik satellites later allow Internet

ii. {C}’72: 1st computer in modern use form

iii. {C}IBM, HP: patent the computer components

iv. {C}1st interface coding language—allowing email—5 universities collaborating on a physics project

1. {C}Used commodity Internet: infrastructure tapped into for Internet constructed by department of defense

2. {C}1st T1 lines in ’60—linked major cities

3. {C}World wide web is link into T1 lines

{C}B. {C}Defining Cyberspace

a. {C}A virtual reality that stores, transmits, and communicates information

b. {C}A different level of consciousness

c. {C}Ethics, shape time and space, dysfunctions with intersection of RL and VL, ground breaking, trying to transcend biology, who’s in charge?

{C}C. {C}Cyberculture

a. {C}Includes morals and values

b. {C}Shared social constructs and infrastructure and the discourse

c. {C}Culture is passed on through generations

d. {C}Defines a group of people

e. {C}Artifacts humans create by living together

f. {C}Cyberculture is not necessarily computer generated

{C}D. {C}Benedikt reading—Cyberspace

a. {C}Popper says there are 3 worlds:

i. {C}World 1: objective, material reality

ii. {C}World 2: Subjective world of our consciousness

iii. {C}World 3: Cultural residue

b. {C}Benedikt says cyberspace displaces world 3

c. {C}4 threads of cyberspace

i. {C}Mythologies and fictions of the world

ii. {C}Changing/non-static—evolving technology

iii. {C}Architecture—strive for heavenly architecture, old project that cyberspace is part of

iv. {C}Mathematics—a logic, cyberspace creates a new logic

d. {C}Benedikt says we are nomads always in touch—electronic tether

i. {C}Multiple disciplines involved in cyberspace

1. {C}Examples from everyone’s majors


I. {C}Jenkins—Convergence culture

a. {C}CH. 1: Spoiling Survivor

i. {C}Convergence: joining of technologies to combine and spread information

ii. {C}Crowd-sourcing: Data from a crowd used to create an algorithm to predict what people are searching online ex: Google

iii. {C}Collective Intelligence: Ability of virtual communities to leverage combined expertise of many

1. {C}Levy believes this allows us to enact democracy

2. {C}Wikipedia

iv. {C}Spoilers: About a game and academic pursuits. Largely harmless, relate to fantasy football. How can groups like spoilers cause harm?

b. {C}Ch. 2: American Idol

i. {C}Affective economics: Trying to condition consumers, make them loyal by creating emotional ties to the program

ii. {C}Vertical Integration: When advertisers integrate ads into all parts of the media ex: American Idol—judges drink from Coke cups and audience dances around Ford vehicles.

II. {C}Writing for the Internet

a. {C}It takes users longer to read on a screen than it does on paper

b. {C}Academic writing

i. {C}Limited circulation

ii. {C}Specific styles for the discipline (MLA)

iii. {C}Linear structure

iv. {C}Deliberate citations for depth

c. {C}Web writing

i. {C}Broad circulation

{}1. {C}Memes, general diction used

ii. {C}Clarity and brevity privileged

{}1. {C}25% slower on screen

{}2. {C}Low scroll tolerance

iii. {C}Hyperlinking for depth

{}1. {C}Nodes, new pages, layering

iv. {C}Scanability

{}1. {C}Z pattern with eyes

v. {C}Chunking

{C}{C}1. {C}Break info into digestible segments

{C}{C}2. {C}No indentations

{C}{C}3. {C}No transitional phrases or topic sentences

{C}{C}4. {C}Bullets and lists

{C}{C}5. {C}Always left aligned

{C}{C}6. {C}Includes paragraphing

{C}{C} vi. {C}Keywords

{C}{C}1. {C}Allows writing to be indexed

{C}{C}2. {C}Use underline/bold/italics sparingly and consistently

{C}{C}3. {C}Promote scanability

{C}{C}4. {C}Can be hyperlinked

{C}{C} vii. {C}Hyperlinks and references

{C}{C}1. {C}Allows checking sources, definitions—credibility

{C}{C}2. {C}Break linearity

{C}{C}3. {C}If you can’t hyperlink, cite

{C}{C} viii. {C}Usability

{C}{C}1. {C}Embed video when useful

{C}{C}2. {C}Can use vulgarities and/or informal words if it matches use of the text you’re writing

{C}{C}3. {C}Rules are breakable but there should be reason for breaking them and is not done right could cause you to lose audience and usefulness


{C}{C}I. {C}Tron Discussion:

{C}{C}1. {C}What’s interesting about Tron?

{C}{C}a. {C}No limitations to cyberspace

{C}{C}b. {C}Master control rules humans

{C}{C}c. {C}Relation to Nazi Germany

{C}{C}d. {C}Emotionality of programs

{C}{C}e. {C}Relation to Toy Story

{C}{C}f. {C}Blurred lines between user and program

{C}{C}2. {C}Issues with Tron?

{C}{C}a. {C}Romance among programs

{C}{C}b. {C}Costumes and special effects

{C}{C}c. {C}Not considered a film at one point—too much computer animations

{C}{C}d. {C}No talk about time frames in RL and VL

{C}{C}e. {C}Technological overstimulation

{C}{C}3. {C}Transmedia Storytelling

{C}{C}a. {C}Yes, starts with video games—film gives game a narrative

{C}{C}b. {C}Makes you more invested in film

{C}{C}c. {C}Can make us so committed to thing that we’re no longer critical consumers

{C}{C}II. {C}Terminology-Jenkins

{C}{C}a. {C}Transmedia Storytelling

{C}{C} i. {C}Telling a story with the use of multiple media

{C}{C} ii. {C}Each media should be a stand alone, self contained unit

{C}{C}1. {C}You shouldn’t need one to understand the other

{C}{C} iii. {C}Promoting and selling a new world—promoting active participation

{C}{C}b. {C}Media/medium

{C}{C} i. {C}Means of communicating across a platform, communicates a message

{C}{C}c. {C}New Media

{C}{C} i. {C}Media that allows interactivity, web 2.0 technologies

{C}{C}d. {C}Cyberculture

{C}{C} i. {C}Culture as a result of fast communication via different media. Artifacts created by displacement of world 3 through technology.

{C}{C}e. {C}Convergence

{C}{C} i. {C}Assimilation of technologies across different platforms

{C}{C}f. {C}Black Box Fallacy

{C}{C} i. {C}All information will be given to us through a single black box that controls all of our media—refuted by many scholars

{C}{C}g. {C}Collective intelligence

{C}{C} i. {C}Shared knowledge from individuals—like our class wiki—pooled intelligence is better than just individual information

{C}{C}h. {C}Affective economics

{C}{C} i. {C}Economic theory based on emotions of consumers—you become economically invested also—making you an ideal consumer

{C}{C}i. {C}Participation culture

{C}{C} i. {C}Expect our entertainment to be participatory

{C}{C}j. {C}Crowd-sourcing

{C}{C} i. {C}Collecting data/information from the group—anonymously—create algorithms to predict based off of habits

{C}{C}k. {C}Participation/Interactivity

{C}{C} i. {C}Participation is related to all media, interactivity is related to new media

{C}{C}III. {C}Cyberliteracy

{C}{C}a. {C}Literacy studies are diverse

{C}{C} i. {C}Composition

{C}{C} ii. {C}Medicine

{C}{C} iii. {C}Economics

{C}{C} iv. {C}Soc/anth

{C}{C}b. {C}Literacy as a performative tool

{C}{C} i. {C}It’s relative

{C}{C} ii. {C}Can be partially literate

{C}{C}c. {C}Computers and communication

{C}{C} i. {C}Ong’s 2nd orality—language based on written and spoken language

{C}{C}1. {C}He privileges the written

{C}{C} ii. {C}Electronic communication shares speech and writing

{C}{C}d. {C}Cyberliteracy is about…

{C}{C} i. {C}Electronic literacy

{C}{C} ii. {C}Increased reach—speed and time compressed

{C}{C} iii. {C}Cyberliteracy isn’t a neutral value

{C}{C}1. {C}Can disclude people

{C}{C} iv. {C}Computer literacy (but not just)

{C}{C} v. {C}Consciousness—not just doing, thinking and knowing

{C}{C} vi. {C}Availability to communicate (performative)

{C}{C} vii. {C}Going beyond being a user and becoming an active participant

{C}{C}e. {C}Cyber literacy is…

{C}{C} i. {C}Not just using a computer and technology in meaningful ways, but to understand the meaning behind your actions

{C}{C}f. {C}Gurak’s Action terms for Internet communication

{C}{C} i. {C}Speed

{C}{C}1. {C}Redundancy—multiple messages of the same information

{C}{C}2. {C}Repetitiveness—old stuff that re-circulates as if it’s new

{C}{C}3. {C}Casualness(punctuation and abbreviation)

{C}{C}4. {C}Oralness

{C}{C} ii. {C}Interactivity

{C}{C}1. {C}Ecommerce

{C}{C}2. {C}Privacy

{C}{C}3. {C}Access to inner circle

{C}{C}4. {C}Talk back

{C}{C}5. {C}2-way presence

{C}{C} iii. {C}Reach

{C}{C}1. {C}Multiplicity

{C}{C}2. {C}Globalness

{C}{C}3. {C}Community

{C}{C}4. {C}Visual reach

{C}{C}5. {C}Lack of gatekeeping

{C}{C} iv. {C}Anonymity

{C}{C}1. {C}Authorship and ownership

{C}{C}2. {C}Flaming(feel secure through anonymity)

{C}{C}3. {C}Identity

{C}{C}4. {C}Gender and sex


1/10—Aarseth—playing research and political gaming

{C}A. {C}7 elements for analysis: layers of the computer game(Konzak)

{C}{C}a. {C}Hardware

{C}{C}b. {C}Program code

{C}{C}c. {C}Functionality: capability of program

{C}{C}d. {C}Game play: interaction of player and game associated with manipulation

{C}{C}e. {C}Meaning: narrative

{C}{C}f. {C}Referentiality: comparison to real world

{C}{C}g. {C}Socio-culture

{C}{C} i. {C}You can’t analyze all of these elements at one time, pick 2-4 elements to focus on

{C}B. {C}Aesthetic analysis

{C}{C}a. {C}Game play

{C}{C}b. {C}Game world—artistic representation

{C}{C}c. {C}Game rules—how are they presented to the user

{C}{C} i. {C}To seriously analyze we must play, watch someone play, research/compare with other data, and talk with developers—get a multi-person perspective

{C}C. {C}4 types of gamers

{C}{C}a. {C}Killers: aggressive, enjoy preying, harassing and spoiling

{C}{C}b. {C}Socializes: Enjoy others’ company, interactivity

{C}{C}c. {C}Explorers: enjoy finding new stuff

{C}{C}d. {C}Achievers: play to win and finish as fast as possible

{C}{C}e. {C}Cheaters: use codes and short cuts


1/16 Cyber racism—Daniels

{C}A. {C}Major ideas and terms

{C}{C}a. {C}Cyber Racism

{C}{C} i. {C}Les Back—range of white supremacy movements in Europe and North America. Internet opened expression across national boundaries. Daniels looks at more than official social movements

{C}{C}b. {C}Cyber-activism

{C}{C} i. {C}Includes cyberfeminism, racism, hacktivism, and terrorism. Proliferation of social movement organizations—promote inclusive, democratic society

{C}{C} ii. {C}Inherent liberal bias-democracy assumed

{C}{C}c. {C}Epistemology

{C}{C} i. {C}Study of issues having to do with creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry—in cyberspace anyone can create evidence because of the reduction of gatekeepers online

{C}{C}d. {C}White supremacy

{C}{C} i. {C}An epistemology—belief in racial hierarchy where white is the dominant racial identity—evidence from perceived biological, national, social, and/or ideological affiliation.

{C}{C}e. {C}Whiteness

{C}{C} i. {C}Major component of white supremacy. Belid in an unmarked racial category (people don’t see their own race) privileged racialized US class based on historical and economic motivations—huge spectrum. A consciousness and practice does not necessarily mean you are white

{C}{C} ii. {C}Whiteness allows for certain epistemologies of white supremacy to go unchecked

{C}{C} iii. {C}Study of how power circulates through the practice of racialization

{C}{C}f. {C}Translocal whiteness

{C}{C} i. {C}A notion of whiteness with roots in a locality—it’s notion moves across borders of time, space, and nations

{C}{C}g. {C}White racial frame

{C}{C} i. {C}The notion of frames was developed by Erving Goffman. A frame refers to a set of labels that receivers affix to social phenomena so as to make sense of them. The white racial frame includes:

{C}{C}1. {C}A white racial framing of society with its racist ideology, stereotypes, and emotions

{C}{C}2. {C}Whites’ discriminatory actions and racial hierarchy

{C}{C}3. {C}Racist institutions maintained by discriminatory whites over centuries

{C}{C} ii. {C}The rationalizing of the white racial frame began in the 1600s as a justifications for the economic and racial hierarchy of colonialism—this continues today

{C}{C}h. {C}Internet/cyberspace

{C}{C} i. {C}Electronic networks that connect people and information through computers and other digital devices allowing person to person communication and information retrieval.

{C}{C}i. {C}Globalization

{C}{C} i. {C}Internet allows for—material and cultural process—moves goods and ideas across national boundaries also crossing time and space.

• Daniels is saying that the issue isn’t recruitment but the circulation of an epistemology of white supremacy and translocal whiteness.

• Richard Machado—hate emails to Asian students

-Latino man

Assimilation of white racial frame—a framing of self as dominant racial category

Flexible boundaries of whiteness

Only person arrested for cyber hate crime (2009)

{C}B. {C}—David Duke

{C}{C}a. {C}Relies on heteronormative masculinity

{C}{C}b. {C}2,500-4,000 hate websites originate in the US

{C}{C} i. {C}So many start here because of the minimal control—free speech

{C}{C}c. {C}Gender and stormfront

{C}{C} i. {C}Heteronormative masculinity—normative expressions of male heterosexuality

{C}{C} ii. {C}Control of women’s sexual identity

{C}{C} iii. {C}Contradictions of female members

{C}{C}1. {C}Abortion

{C}{C}2. {C}Liberalism

{C}{C}3. {C}Revenge on men


1/17 Cloaked Website Daniels 7&8

{C}A. {C}Concerns:

{C}{C}a. {C}Research is all online now

{C}{C}b. {C}Authorship is unclear

{C}{C}c. {C}Misunderstanding/naiveté when searching for credible sources

{C}{C}d. {C}People more and more removed from Civil Rights era and movement

{C}{C}e. {C}Information extracted in meme form is not always transparent, journalistic reporting

{C}B. {C}Terms

{C}{C}a. {C}Google bombing: manipulation of Google ranking algorithm to alter search results

{C}{C} i. {C}Clouding ideas



{C}A. {C}Discourse communities

{C}{C}a. {C}Mainstream media-MSNBC

{C}{C}b. {C}Back channels-FB and twitter

{C}{C}c. {C}Techie news

{C}{C}d. {C}Actual sites of protest-Wikipedia

{C}{C}e. {C}Political responses

{C}{C} i. {C}How is the issue framed, what language is used?

{C}{C} ii. {C}Who is participating?

{C}B. {C}General Information

{C}{C}a. {C}Talking about how to bypass blacks—it will just irritate people who don’t pirate, those who do will find a way around it


1/19 Cyberfeminisms

{C}{C}I. {C}First wave US feminism

{C}{C}a. {C}Main people

{C}{C} i. {C}Abigail Adams 1744-1818

{C}{C} ii. {C}Mary Wollstonecraft

{C}{C} iii. {C}Phillis Wheatley

{C}{C} iv. {C}Sojourner Truth

{C}{C} v. {C}Susan B. Anthony 1820-1906

{C}{C}b. {C}Seneca Falls Convention 1848

{C}{C} i. {C}2 day convention-Lucretia Mott, Quaker, Key note speaker

{C}{C} ii. {C}Result: Declaration of Sentiments

{C}{C}1. {C}Women and colored deserve rights

{C}{C}2. {C}Goes to congress—nothing happens

{C}{C} iii. {C}Annual national women’s rights convention until 1860—stopped because of the Civil War

{C}{C}c. {C}Women Suffragists

{C}{C} i. {C}Suffragette—UK term

{C}{C} ii. {C}1870: 15th amendment, colored men can vote

{C}{C} iii. {C}1920: 19th amendment, women’s right to vote and own property

{C}{C}1. {C}New Zealand: 1893

{C}{C}2. {C}Finland: 1906

{C}{C}3. {C}USSR: 1917

{C}{C}II. {C}2nd wave feminisms (1960)

{C}{C}a. {C}Simone de Beauvoir-The 2nd sex—“one is not born a woman”

{C}{C} i. {C}Woman is a cultural construct—designates servant of man

{C}{C} ii. {C}Stereotypes emerge ‘60s-‘80s (topless, bra burning, etc.

{C}{C}b. {C}Leaders

{C}{C} i. {C}Betty Friedan-“the problem has no name”

{C}{C} ii. {C}Gloria Steinem-Ms. Magazine—1st feminist publication, still in circulation

{C}{C}c. {C}Consciousness Raising (CR) groups

{C}{C} i. {C}Touchy-feely, emotional bonding

{C}{C}d. {C}Combahee River Collective: ’74-’80—Black feminists

{C}{C} i. {C}Intersectionality of race, class, and gender: can’t necessarily separate these things out

{C}{C} ii. {C}CRC statement

{C}{C} iii. {C}Audre Lorde, Beverly Smith, and Barbara Smith

{C}{C}e. {C}Chicana Feminisms 1942-2004

{C}{C} i. {C}Gloriana Anzaldia

{C}{C} ii. {C}May not fir a class category—borders of identity

{C}{C} iii. {C}Borderlands La Frontera

{C}{C}III. {C}3rd Wave

{C}{C}a. {C}Response to 2nd wave’s shortcomings

{C}{C}b. {C}Complicates issues of sexuality, gender identity, race, and culture

{C}{C}c. {C}Feminist punk—Riot Grrrls

{C}{C} i. {C}Bikini Kill

{C}{C}d. {C}Major issues include body image

{C}{C}IV. {C}Terminology—relate to cyborgian experiences

{C}{C}a. {C}Sex: biological expression related to chromosome, hormones, and other physical features. Anne Fausto Sterling—atleast 5 sexes (intersex people)

{C}{C}b. {C}Gender: Cultural significance a body acquires. Gender is socially constructed and embodied. “One isn’t born a woman”-DeBeauvoir

{C}{C}c. {C}Sexuality: Practices, beliefs, and identities associated with erotic desire

{C}{C}d. {C}Patriarchy: rule by male authority

{C}{C}e. {C}Misogyny: Hatred/dislike of females—prejudice against females

{C}{C}f. {C}Feminism: Movement to end sexist exploitation, sexism, and sexist oppression (bell hooks)

{C}{C}V. {C}Cyberfeminisms

{C}{C}a. {C}Sadie Plant- women’s role in Internet development

{C}{C} i. {C}Women were discussing in small groups before computer evolution

{C}{C} ii. {C}Daniels- gender and digital technologies

{C}{C} iii. {C}Cyberfeminist uses irony and blasphemy of Haraway’s cyborg—oppositional, utopian, and be without innocence

{C}{C}1. {C}Engage in the nexus of gender and digital technologies—in playful but hostile manner

{C}{C} iv. {C}Photoshop video—good, but not far enough

{C}{C} v. {C}Haraway’s monsters of US culture

{C}{C}1. {C}Frankenstein—relies on singular creator to make and destroy: cyborgs don’t have just one creator

{C}{C}2. {C}Terminator- militaristic machine

{C}{C}3. {C}I, Borg

{C}{C}4. {C}Alien: use technology to protect

{C}{C}a. {C}Driving force of technology is militarism

{C}{C} i. {C}Modern war is a cyborg orgy-Haraway

{C}{C}b. {C}We need to be conscious that these technologies come from a background of violence and be thoughtful with the technology we have—reprogram and use as a utopic machine

{C}{C}VI. {C}We are cyborgs

{C}{C}a. {C}Haraway is serious

{C}{C}b. {C}We rely on countless technologies we rely on for survival and success

{C}{C} i. {C}Ventilator example

{C}{C}c. {C}Real world Cyborgs

{C}{C} i. {C}Amputees

{C}{C} ii. {C}Transplant recipients

{C}{C} iii. {C}Steven Hawkings

{C}{C}d. {C}Your success due to certain technologies makes us partial to them—supports funding

{C}{C} i. {C}This shapes politics

{C}{C}e. {C}Be cognizant of our technological alliances and be open to definitions of technologies

{C}{C} i. {C}Changes the way we look at others—ex. PhD

{C}{C}f. {C}Hollaback movement

{C}{C} i. {C}Use our technologies in innovative ways


Notes 1/25/12
Law and Online Content {C} {C}

  • U.S. Law as it relates to Online Content

    • Defamation

      • Slander (spoken) or Libel (written)

        • content must be proven false

        • must prove malicious intent of producer--grocery store mags.

          • Cyberbullies

          • Intent to ruin the victim socially, professionally, etc.

        • G damage rep

    • Intellectual Property

      • Copyright

        • can copyright original work that’s fixed in a tangible medium

          • Winkelvoss’ in Social Network used emails

      • Fair use--guidelines for use of copyrighted materials

        • Purpose of use

          • use for brand new purpose that doesn’t conflict with the original use

          • ex: our wiki page

        • Nature of the new and original work

          • ex: use of poem on flyer--prevents people from looking up the work in it’s original source

          • can use one line of a poem and include it in our new, original poem

          • Weird Al--parody falls under fair use

        • Amount used

          • How much of old work is used in the new work

          • Entire pictures probably violate

          • 1 chapter of a book is usually in violation

          • 4 lines of poetry or songs

        • Effect on market

          • Biggest one, what people care about

          • Impact on original artist’s market share by making their work available for free

          • Take away from creator’s ability to earn money

    • Relation to Catfish

      • YouTube video featured in the film

      • Aimee Gonzalez

      • 5 questions: Class discussion and response

        • Does Aimee Gonzales deserve compensation for what happened to her? If, so does she deserve? If not, why not?

        • What responsibility do Niv and the other filmmakers hold in this ‘deception.’

        • Did Niv have a real relationship with anyone in Michigan? If so, who?

        • What is your response to Angela’s behaviors? Can you understand her point of view and actions? Or do you find them pathological?

        • Is this a documentary or is this staged? Does this matter?


McLuhan(Understanding Media ‘64): The medium is the message, Orwellian, believed media is going to lead us to a place where we have Big Brother and a fascist dictatorship. One of the first true media scholars. We need to pay attention to media because it’s potentially controlling our thought processes. Media effects society and culture--it is a technological extension of our body. The message distracts from the truth of what the medium does.
Postman(Amusing Ouselves to Death ‘84): We’re subjecting ourselves to Big Brother. We willingly surrender, we are doping ourselves--we just want this entertainment, we don’t care about the truth. Media constrains messages--it keeps us from understanding what the message is doing. We just get snapshots of the whole story with media. His main concern is the unknown knowns-- what we know is happening and choose to forget.
Internet as Utopia

  • Positives

    • With just a computer and internet access users can freely create and participate in a community unhindered by the bounds of time, space, and being.

    • Provides respite from everyday life

    • transcends the physical world

    • Built for and by ordinary individuals (More’s Utopia)

    • Forum for expression

    • Order and design of creation are unconfined and expanding rapidly inan organic manner

  • Negatives

    • Fanatics, predators, bullies, and hackers are in this space

    • Business, government, and organizational actions (regulation, advertisement, confines)

    • Big brother is watching and controlling

    • Unequal space for different groups--no guarantees of equal rights

Internet and Democracy -Democracy can be defined as all adults having equal say in decisions that effect their lives. It may be too early to determine the impact the Internet truly has on democracy.

  • Positives

    • Allows quick mobilization of dispersed masses (ex: Arab Spring)--speed and reach, led to increased youth voter turn out

    • The Internet threatens authoritarian regimes

    • Easy to find and make groups

    • Democratized fundraising--decreased dependence on large donors

    • Journalists and bloggers can be heard

    • Quick government contact and communication (ex: H1N1)

    • Empowers citizens through participation--YouTube debates, candidates had to respond to the public

  • Negatives

    • Gives authorities a quick way to monitor citizens public and private activity

    • Misinformation spreads just as fast as true information--we need a literate population

    • Attend only to information and communities with which you agree and people are more inclined to fast information(no democracy without informed citizenry)--increasing party line distinction and supporting the bashing of people/candidates with opposing views

    • Parodies enhance epistemology of white supremacy

    • People/groups with more visibility have a greater reach and cyberliterate individuals have a stronger voice and enact more change--there are also gatekeepers.

RL vs. Cyberspace

  • Are they interconnected, where do we draw the line?

    • We put things online, there are fragments of RL in cyberspace

    • Cyberspace is an extension of our social structure

    • The main distinctions is tangibility

    • FB stydy--we pretty much are who we are in RL online in our profiles

    • Gurak 8

      • Cyberspace does not exist (it’s not a real space), the Internet does exist

        • How real are online communities then?

      • Cyberspace addictions


The World Wide Web Unleashed (December)

{C}A. {C}The web is a communications system—it’s a system for exchanging data over computer networks using special software.

{C}{C}a. {C}The web isn’t just a publishing medium or a market for selling stuff, it’s a medium in which many kinds of communication contexts coexist simultaneously.

{C}{C}b. {C}There are multiple possibilities for web communications:

{C}{C} i. {C}Interpersonal

{C}{C} ii. {C}Group

{C}{C} iii. {C}Organizational

{C}{C} iv. {C}Mass

{C}{C} v. {C}Communication

{C}{C} vi. {C}Interaction

{C}{C} vii. {C}Computation

{C}{C} viii. {C}Information delivery

{C}B. {C}History of the Internet

{C}{C}a. {C}1989-Tim Berners-Lee a researcher at CERN

{C}{C} i. {C}He had previously proposed a system for efficient information sharing within the Physics community

{C}{C} ii. {C}His HyperText proposal included:

{C}{C}1. {C}Interface consistent across all platforms, enabling users to access information from many computers

{C}{C}2. {C}Storage of info. in links. Can follow links on a variety of paths for information retrieval

{C}{C} iii. {C}www interface available by ‘91

{C}{C} iv. {C}Hypertext first coined in ’65—text unconstrained and non-sequential

{C}{C} v. {C}Xanadu—system to link all world literature with provisions for automatically paying royalties to authors—key to this was the idea of linking info in non hierarchical ways

{C}{C}1. {C}Hypertext extends the structure of ideas by making chunks of ideas available for inclusion in many parts of multiple texts

{C}{C}2. {C}There is also hypermedia

{C}{C}b. {C}US mixed ideas with CERN and the Internet was born in the form of the www interface (1993)

{C}{C} i. {C}Mosaic—web with point and click design

{C}{C} ii. {C}Exponential growth for the next couple of years

Red alert in cyberspace (Virilio)

{C}A. {C}Cyberspace is a new perspective—no precedent—tactile perspective

{C}B. {C}Information superhighways lead to disorientation

{C}{C}a. {C}This disorientation is the negative aspect of information superhighways

{C}{C}b. {C}Cyberspace has created instantaneity

{C}{C} i. {C}We’re at the end of capitalism, we now trade time and space

{C}{C}1. {C}Speed is impacting us, we are missing other things because we are engaged in a virtual world

{C}C. {C}There’s a split between RL and VR, existence loses its reference points

{C}{C}a. {C}A trauma is caused

{C}{C}b. {C}Consequences for society and democracy

Cyberspace (Benedikt)

{C}A. {C}Sir Karl Popper, “The world as a whole consists of 3 interconnected worlds…”

{C}{C}1. {C}World 1: the objective world of the material, natural things and their physical properties

{C}{C}2. {C}World 2: Subjective world of consciousness—intentions, calculations, feelings, thoughts, dreams, memories, etc.—it’s in people’s minds

{C}{C}3. {C}World 3: The world of objective, real, and public structures (not necessarily intentional products of the minds of living creatures) and their interactions with the natural world. Many are abstract, such as, social organization or patterns of communication

{C}{C}a. {C}Temples, cathedrals, courts, libraries, letters, book pages, CDs, newspapers…all physical manifestations of objects that exist wholly in world 3

{C}{C}b. {C}It’s patterns of pure information

{C}{C}c. {C}World 3 structures feed back into and impact worlds 1 and 2

{C}{C}d. {C}Cyberspace is the most recent stage in the evolution of world 3

{C}B. {C}Benedikt’s 4 threads within the evolution of world 3

{C}{C}a. {C}Thread 1

{C}{C} i. {C}Begins in language and before with the commonness of mind among members of a tribe

{C}{C} ii. {C}The effectiveness relies on the coordinated behavior of the group around a set of beliefs held to be true

{C}{C} iii. {C}Myths and mythical themes inform our arts and imaginations but also the way we understand each other, they help shape our lives

{C}{C}1. {C}The young are most impacted—adolescent boys support comic industry

{C}{C} iv. {C}Cyberspace’s immateriality and malleability of content provide a tempting stage for the acting out of mythic realities—an extension of our age old capacity and desire to dwell in fiction

{C}{C}b. {C}Thread 2

{C}{C} i. {C}The history of the technical means by which absent and/or abstract entities become symbolically represented—conserved through time and space. History of communication media

{C}{C}1. {C}Print revolution

{C}{C}a. {C}No limits to where printed material could travel—limit is time/speed

{C}{C}2. {C}Telegraph—first connection via network—limit is expense

{C}{C}3. {C}Telephone eliminated the problems of speed and expense

{C}{C}4. {C}Ability to store info (first tape recorder in 1935)

{C}{C}5. {C}Radio and TV—wireless broadcasting

{C}{C}a. {C}Significance of geographical bounds is questioned

{C}{C}6. {C}VR

{C}{C}a. {C}With increasing size of the virtual world comes the need for consensus of behavior, iconic language, modes of representation, object physics, protocols, and design—need for cyberspace—need a public, consistent, democratic world

{C}{C}c. {C}Thread 3

{C}{C} i. {C}History of architecture

{C}{C}1. {C}Begins with displacement and exile—creative response to climactic stress

{C}{C}2. {C}Does cyberspace allow us access to the Heavenly city?

{C}{C}a. {C}Transcends the physical

{C}{C}b. {C}Customizable

{C}{C}c. {C}But others influence your created cyberworld

{C}{C}3. {C}Cyberspace will require constant planning and organizing. The structures proliferating within it will require design and the people who design them will be cyberspace architects

{C}{C}d. {C}Thread 4

{C}{C} i. {C}History of mathematics

Convergence Culture Chapters 1&2, Survivor and American Idol

{C}{C}I. {C}Chapter 1—Spoling Survivor—Knowledge communities

{C}{C}a. {C}Spoiling as collective intelligence

{C}{C} i. {C}Levy—No one knows everything, but everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity.”

{C}{C} ii. {C}Collective intelligence is the ability of virtual communities to leverage the combined expertise of their members.

{C}{C} iii. {C}Communities emerging in cyberspace

{C}{C}1. {C}Communities held together through mutual production and reciprocal exchange of knowledge

{C}{C}2. {C}Sites for discussion, negotiation, and development

{C}{C}3. {C}Communities must scrutinize information that is going to become a part of their shared knowledge

{C}{C}4. {C}The social process of acquiring knowledge holds these communities together

{C}{C} iv. {C}Levy—knowledge communities are central to the task of restoring democratic citizenship. New kinds of political power will emerge, challenging the hegemony of the nation state or capitalism. He calls his model of collective intelligence is an ‘achievable utopia’—but we are still learning, we’re exploring and innovating structures that will support the political and economic life in the future.

{C}{C}b. {C}Gated knowledge communities

{C}{C} i. {C}Brain trusts emerged in the spoiling community—they do investigation through password protected sites. They argue this allows for a higher level of accuracy.

{C}{C} ii. {C}Brain trusts are the return of hierarchy to the knowledge culture—they have access to info that others don’t and they command respect and trust

{C}{C}c. {C}Living in a knowledge community raises questions about how we know the information we receive is accurate and how do we evaluate it

{C}{C} i. {C}Expert paradigm—Walsh

{C}{C}1. {C}The bounded body of knowledge is individually masterable

{C}{C}2. {C}An exterior and interior are created

{C}{C}3. {C}There are rules for accessing and processing information

{C}{C}4. {C}The experts have credentials

{C}{C}d. {C}Riley Crane’s Red balloon project

{C}{C}II. {C}American Idol—Being sold into reality TV

{C}{C}a. {C}Affective economics—emotions driving consumerism

{C}{C} i. {C}Lovemarks vs brands

{C}{C} ii. {C}For most, 80% of purchasing is done by 20% of the consumer base

{C}{C}b. {C}Expressions—how and why consumers react the way they do

{C}{C} i. {C}Comodifying tastes

{C}{C}1. {C}You don’t want to be underrepresented or exploited

{C}{C}c. {C}Zappers, casuals, and loyals

{C}{C}d. {C}Gossip fuels convergence

{C}{C}e. {C}More invested in American Idol=more support of it’s sponsors

Convergence Culture Chapters 3&4, Transmedia storytelling&Grassroots creativity and the media industry

{C}{C}I. {C}The Matrix

{C}{C}a. {C}Entertainment for the era of collective intelligence—viewers compare notes and share resources to get a more full experience

{C}{C}b. {C}Transmedia storytelling is across multiple platforms, each text has a distinct and valuable contribution to the whole, but it can also stand alone.

{C}{C}c. {C}Refreshes consumer loyalty

{C}{C}d. {C}There are strong economic motivations behind transmedia storytelling, but the more layers…the smaller the market. This is where the Matrix fell had too much for the average viewer, but too little for the hardcore fan

{C}{C}II. {C}Grassroots creativity and Star Wars

{C}{C}a. {C}The web is a powerful distribution channel for amateurs

{C}{C}b. {C}Participation and interactivity

{C}{C}c. {C}Media responses to grassroots expression

{C}{C} i. {C}Prohibitionist

{C}{C}1. {C}Dominant with old media

{C}{C}2. {C}Regulate and criminalize many forms of fan participation

{C}{C} ii. {C}Collaborationists

{C}{C}1. {C}New media companies

{C}{C}2. {C}See fans as important collaborators in the production of content and as grassroots intermediaries to promote their franchise

{C}{C}3. {C}Star Wars

{C}{C}a. {C}George Lucas has opened space for fans to create and share their creations, but it is on his own terms

{C}{C}b. {C}Free web space at

{C}{C}c. {C}What they make becomes the studio’s property

{C}{C}d. {C}Can use without compensation or remove

{C}{C}4. {C}Men and women create different forms of recreations

{C}{C}a. {C}Men make parodies

{C}{C}b. {C}Women create fan fiction

{C}{C}c. {C}Women’s works don’t fall within the rules and are removed, many don’t know that women even make Star Wars movies

{C}{C}d. {C}McCracken—companies that loosen their copyright control will attract more active, committed customers

Gurak 1&2

{C}{C}I. {C}Gurak Ch. 1—Cyberliteracy

{C}{C}a. {C}Cyberliteracy: conscious interaction with new technology, it embraces and enjoys technology but is also critical of it. Voicing opinions of what technology should become, be active in the discussion—be more than a user

{C}{C}b. {C}2nd orality (Ong): language we use online is a blend of written and spoken word

{C}{C}II. {C}Gurak Ch. 2—Speed, reach, anonymity, and interactivity

{C}{C}a. {C}Action terms for communication on the Internet—explain our online communication

{C}{C}b. {C}Details in class notes

A Grammar of Gamework (McAllister)

{C}{C}I. {C}Negative and positive aspects of gaming

{C}{C}a. {C}Negative

{C}{C} i. {C}Exclusion of primary relationships due to obsession with the game

{C}{C} ii. {C}Ignore tendon disorders—carpal tunnel

{C}{C} iii. {C}Players play through negative effects because the games work at a subconscious level

{C}{C}b. {C}Positive

{C}{C} i. {C}Games make players happy

{C}{C} ii. {C}Increase sociability

{C}{C} iii. {C}Improve critical and strategic thought

{C}{C} iv. {C}Can judge relative velocities of objects well

{C}{C} v. {C}Quickly evaluate room layouts

{C}{C} vi. {C}Emotional outlets

{C}{C}c. {C}Gaming blamed for things like Columbine school shootings

{C}{C}II. {C}Computer games are an economic force

{C}{C}III. {C}Factors of popularity

{C}{C}IV. {C}Look at class notes

Aarseth—Playing research

{C}{C}I. {C}Konzak’s framework for game analysis—7 layers of the computer game

{C}{C}II. {C}3 ways to acquire knowledge

{C}{C}III. {C}Styles of play

{C}{C}IV. {C}You must experience the game in order to analyze it—hand on approach gives the best odds for analytical success

{C}{C}V. {C}Class notes

A Rape in Cyberspace

{C}{C}I. {C}Was there a rape

{C}{C}a. {C}Woman suffered from PTSD

{C}{C}b. {C}No one was physically threatened at any point

{C}{C}c. {C}Toading—banishing a player, deleting their account

{C}{C}d. {C}Wizards=master programmars, ultimately carry out the toading

{C}{C}e. {C}MOO group discussion regarding the toading was held

{C}{C}f. {C}Build into the database a system of petitions and ballots whereby anyone could put to popular vote any social scheme requiring a wizard’s ‘powers’.

{C}{C}g. {C}@boot command implemented, eject characters

{C}{C}II. {C}Class discussion

Daniels Chs. 1-5

{C}{C}I. {C}Ch. 1: White Supremacy in the Digital Era

{C}{C}a. {C}The Internet facilitates publications and distribution of white supremacist discourse and ideology for those committed to producing it and increases its availability to those interested in reading it

{C}{C}b. {C}A primary benefit is that the Internet cheaply and widely spreads information. Also has the potential for recruitment.

{C}{C}c. {C}Online supremacy can lead to violence, harassment, and intimidation in RL

{C}{C}d. {C}Concern for youth and their research online

{C}{C}II. {C}Ch. 2: Theorizing White Supremacy Online—David Duke and Don Black

{C}{C}a. {C}Identity tourism: trying on the descriptors usually applied to persons of another race or gender

{C}{C}b. {C}Online invisibility assumes the Internet is solely text based

{C}{C}c. {C}Words can do harm-hate speech, MOO

{C}{C}d. {C}Recruitment

{C}{C} i. {C}Tech-savvy youth aren’t likely to get recruited, yet many kids have difficulty distinguishing cloaked supremacist sites from legitimate sites

{C}{C} ii. {C}Face to face recruitment is the most effective

{C}{C}III. {C}Ch. 3: Individual Acts of White Supremacy Online

{C}{C}a. {C}Richard Machado

{C}{C} i. {C}He needed not be white nor mentally ill to do what he did. He just needed to grow up in the US, and adapt to the dominant culture’s white racial frame

{C}{C}IV. {C}Ch. 4: White Supremacist Social Movements Online and in a Global Context

{C}{C}a. {C}Social movements are concentrated on cultural values

{C}{C}b. {C}White supremacy

{C}{C} i. {C}Federal government is the primary enemy

{C}{C} ii. {C}Globalization is a huge threat

{C}{C} iii. {C}Backlash against feminisms, gays, and racial or ethnic minorities

{C}{C} iv. {C}Promotes and intolerant affirmation of the superiority of Christian values

{C}{C} v. {C}Translocal whiteness

{C}{C}1. {C}Racial identity shaped by global information flow

{C}{C}2. {C}Rooted in core American values and drawing upon the rhetoric that aligns itself with the founding fathers and seeking to transcend national boundaries and exert a global reach.

{C}{C} vi. {C}Digital diasporas

{C}{C}1. {C}The way online communities shape racial and ethnic identities constructed at the intersection of technologies and globalization

{C}{C}V. {C}Ch. 5: Gender, White Supremacy, and the Internet

{C}{C}a. {C}Women at stormfront

{C}{C} i. {C}Women create their own space online

{C}{C}1. {C}Sense of liberalism

{C}{C}2. {C}Speak against men

{C}{C}3. {C}Abortions

{C}{C}4. {C}Feel powerless in comparison to the men

{C}{C} ii. {C}Core of white supremacist discourse in print only era –sexual dominance of white men over others

Daniels 7&8

{C}{C}I. {C}Ch. 7: Cloaked Websites

{C}{C}a. {C}Cloaked websites are published by individuals or groups who conceal authorship or intention in order to deliberately disguise a hidden political agenda

{C}{C}b. {C}The epistemological threat to the cultural value of racial equality along with the absence of both critical thinking about race and a vibrant movement toward racial equality that Daniels sees as the biggest threat posed by white supremacy online—it’s especially threatening for generations born after the civil rights era

{C}{C}c. {C}Black propaganda: false material, source is disguised

{C}{C}d. {C}Gray propaganda: source is unidentified

{C}{C}e. {C}White propaganda: real source identified

{C}{C}f. {C}The Internet has a leveling effect that renders one source as valid as another because they are accessible via the same media

{C}{C} i. {C}This makes visual cues—graphic design and page layout key for assessing credibility

{C}{C}g. {C}Domain name registration

{C}{C}II. {C}Ch. 8—Adolescents making sense of cloaked websites

{C}{C}a. {C}Reliance on the order of search results to determine legitimacy

{C}{C}b. {C}Suffix of web is trusted

{C}{C}c. {C}Lack of understand of the civil rights era

{C}{C}d. {C}Examine digital photographs and visual cues to determine which sites are cloaked and which aren’t—better web design would make cloaked sites harder to pinpoint as white supremacist sites

{C}{C}e. {C}Hang ups on bias, thinking there are two sides to everything, say cloaked sites are one bias

{C}{C}f. {C}Recruitment is not a threat, the threat is the epistemological hazard—the danger that ideas and values of racial equality with be undermined and eroded.

Gurak 4&5

{C}{C}I. {C}Ch. 4—Genders and virtualities

{C}{C}a. {C}Cyberspace is gendered

{C}{C} i. {C}Articles in engineering magazine00from the boss’ lap

{C}{C} ii. {C}Flaming is a male characteristic

{C}{C} iii. {C}Marketing plays up genders—pink and blue laptops

{C}{C}II. {C}Ch. 5—Humor, hoaxes, and legends in Cyberspace

{C}{C}a. {C}Hoax: false, deliberately deceptive information, includes pranks

{C}{C} i. {C}Chain letters can be hoaxes

{C}{C} ii. {C}Contain a hook, threat, and request

{C}{C}b. {C}Hackers

{C}{C} i. {C}The ethos is flaming

{C}{C} ii. {C}Speed, reach, and anonymity—key features of online communication

{C}{C}1. {C}Think before posting

{C}{C}2. {C}Teach new users what to look out for

The Hacktivist

{C}{C}I. {C}Hacktivism

{C}{C}a. {C}Hacking for a political purpose

Cyborg Manifesto

{C}{C}I. {C}RR clarification—link posted by the link for the actual document

Jenkins final chapters—democracy

{C}{C}I. {C}Photoshop for Democracy—politics and pop culture

{C}{C}a. {C}2004 campaign was a period of innovation and experimentation in the use of new media and pop-culture based strategies

{C}{C}b. {C}Empowerment age: average citizens challenge power of entrenched institutions—information is power

{C}{C}c. {C}Blogging as a form of grassroots convergence

{C}{C} i. {C}Like spoilers(They release information that is trying to be kept quiet)—track down info but also try to shape future events, use the info they have found to intervene in the democratic process

{C}{C}d. {C}Amateur parodies can circulate widely

{C}{C}e. {C}Groups with high visibility (MTV) push young people toward participation

{C}{C} i. {C}20 million loud campaign

{C}{C}f. {C}Monitoring citizen: needs to develop skills, critical skills for information assessment, individual and collective—through knowledge communities

{C}{C}g. {C}For democracy there needs to be a sense that participant actions have an consequence within the community

{C}{C}h. {C}Democracy might face dangers from the emergence of communication niches

{C}{C} i. {C}Growth in specialized intellectual subcultures—serves only special interests, not the community

{C}{C} ii. {C}Fractionation of society

{C}{C}II. {C}Democratizing TV—the politics of participation

{C}{C}a. {C}Convergence culture enables new forms of participation

{C}{C} i. {C}Still defining the terms under which we can participate

{C}{C} ii. {C}We are learning to use this power individually and collectively

{C}{C}b. {C}Media concentration is bad

{C}{C} i. {C}Stifles competition, puts media industries above consumer demands, lowers diversity

{C}{C} ii. {C}Raises the barriers of participation

Gurak 6

{C}{C}I. {C}Privacy and Copyright in digital space

{C}{C}a. {C}Companies monitor consumer habits online—cookies

{C}{C}b. {C}No policies to deal with online privacy

{C}{C}c. {C}EU directive—orgs must:

{C}{C} i. {C}Identify themselves

{C}{C} ii. {C}Indentify their purpose

{C}{C} iii. {C}Disclose who could receive the info

{C}{C} iv. {C}Explain subject rights

{C}{C}d. {C}Copyright notes on 1/25 notes link

Social Networking Websites and Teen Texts

{C}{C}I. {C}55% of teens have online profiles

{C}{C}II. {C}Girls reinforce relationships with these profiles, boys find new relationships with them

{C}{C}III. {C}Only 17% flirt—interesting considering the purpose of creating Facebook

Jenkins (politics in the age of YouTube)

{C}{C}I. {C}Democratic Debate

{C}{C}a. {C}Gave American public a seat at the table, YouTube videos selected, asked questions of candidates and we answered in the debate

{C}{C}b. {C}Bloggers complain that there was heavy moderation of the questions—say questions were chosen to be fluffy and light. This reinforced old media idea that Internet entertains, but doesn’t offer serious discussion and insight

{C}{C}c. {C}YouTube functions

{C}{C} i. {C}Key for grassroots production and distribution

{C}{C} ii. {C}Media archive

{C}{C} iii. {C}Relates to other social networks

{C}{C}d. {C}Colbert report and Daily show foster civic literacy, teach viewers to be skeptical

{C}{C}e. {C}Downside to digital democracy

{C}{C} i. {C}Participation is unevenly distributed across the culture—open platforms don’t ensure diversity

{C}{C} ii. {C}Speed causes short-lived, superficial conversations

{C}{C} iii. {C}Increased parody—online parody embraces epistemology of white supremacy with themes like racism, sexism, and xenophobia—this discourages minority participation

{C}{C}I. {C}Online matchmaking quadruples revenue from ’01-‘02

{C}{C}II. {C}Record 40% of adults are single

{C}{C}III. {C}Companies look at ‘can’t stands’, refute the ideas that it’s our best qualities that bring us together

{C}{C}IV. {C}Intelligence, curiosity, and energy are key factors in a successful partnership

{C}{C}V. {C}Safety is/should be a constant concern for online daters because no questions asked reveal criminal records and/or lying tendencies, although this is being worked on

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