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McLuhan: the media is the message! Media gives us world views and we listen to them

Postman: we are not being oppressed or controlled, we are submitting to the media, we want the sedation from media, big brother is not the problem it is us (sorta like Simmel), it entertains us so we don't care about truth

December: how the internet came to be, development of the internet and specifically the WWW (hypertext, linking, xanadu, ) started with Tim Berners Lee and the CERN project, the internet is a communication tool

Benedikt: 3 worlds (come from Popper) 1- material world, physical things that exist without human creation. 2- Ideas, consciousness, things that happen in the abstract. 3- the convergence of man acting on the physical, the blend of abstract and physical, language, what we as a species create. [one of first to theorize about cyberspace, if it was a space, what it does, et cetera] Cyberspace does not replace w3, it displaces them cyberspace somehow alters the social structures that we have created, but it does not 'trump' them or take their importance, its more of a transplant with reinvention due to the structure of the internet. 4 threads of w3: 1- language, an epic narrative, based on mythos, favors males. 2- Mythology. 3-Logic/Math, 4-Architecture, the heavenly city, believes that we are searching for the utopia of the heavenly city

Virilio: the compression of space and time in cyberspace (instantaneous nature) fundamentally shifts how we react to the world, can cause a trauma

Pierre Levy: knowledge communities and collective knowledge -> group of people pooling thoughts and ideas so that it can be accessed and used effectively, have access to more knowledge than any individual could every know. [Levy thinks CK will lead us to collective knowledge with absolute rule of the people].

Gurak: Cyberliteracy is not only performance based (ability to 'do' things) but also a consciousness and responsibility and awareness of what one is doing to self, others, relationships, structures, et cetera. Also includes knowing the reach of one's tech, being an active participant, understanding that cyberliteracy is not a neutral value. 4 main components: grasp the speed, reach, anonymity, and interactivity of cyberspace (all come together to compress space and time). Gurak thinks that CL is an end goal that we are always moving towards, can never be 'fully' CL

McAllister: begins with debate of violence being causes by gaming. McA believes 'both sides' must be considered to find a semblance of truth. says that we must study games, they have cultural force. Talks about the forces of games 1)psychological and understanding of social relationships 2)economic, huge transfer of capital and time 3)instructional/pedagogical, a game teaches us something (can be trivial or important, subversive or obvious). Mass v popular culture, it is a mass culture, huge numbers of people take part so we should know what it is doing

Arseth: new techniques are needed for studying video games, must play the game, watch others play, understand how they are created/produced. Types of gamers- killer, achiever, explorer, socializer, cheater (ideal types, Weberian)

Geocaching: mashing of cyber and material, uses advanced tech and cyberspace interaction to explore and experience the physical world (w1), gives a hybrid/creolization experience of both cyber and material.

Rape in Cyberspace: does virtual world create consequences in the physical world? Multiple perspectives on what is actually going on. MUD multiple user domain, MOO, MUD object oriented.

Daniels: Epistemology: the study of justified belief, viewing how belies circulate and emerge, understanding how knowledge is created and why it is upheld. Cyber racism- makes deception easier, able to spread racist messages without vetting or control, racist messages and frames are passed off as non-controversial, highly subversive and allows for translocal whiteness. Issues is not 'recruitment' but naive reintegration into cultural fabric.

Hacktivism: hacking and activism (not necessarily 'good' or agreeable, just hacking with a political or social purpose, not vandalism) deep knowledge of tech necessary

Cyberfeminisms: calling into question gender hierarchies, sexuality, cultural norms, scripts, et cetera and how those are displaced in cyberspace

Haraway: we are cyborgs. We have to understand that reality and deal with it effectively. Tech structures our entire social world (politics, education, relationships, structures). Feminist section of her: we can overcome dominating and oppressive regimes (including gendered oppressed) if we embrace that we are cyborgs, use these technologies to protect ourselves. If we use tech in ironic and blasphemous ways we will not be 'innocent'- there will be a problem with this is some way and it has ramifications, we must take responsibility for our use of tech.

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